1. Problem and Context: the Need for Emergency shelters
The challenge ;
Providing Emergency Shelter after Natural Disaster
Natural Disasters are occurring more often, and doing more damage.
Natural disasters have a tremendous and negative impact on life, livelihood and environment. According to the analysis of UNISDR, The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, in 2015, 22,773 people died as a direct effect of natural disasters globally. In 2015, the disasters also had an impact on a further 98.6 million people and economic losses in the range of $66.5 billion USD. The report suggests that in the same period at least 18 countries have reported devastating natural disasters, such as flood, storm, landslide, earthquake, etc.
The Red Cross states that natural catastrophes took place an average of 354 times each year between 1991 and 1999. This rate doubled to an average of 728 natural disasters per year between 2000 and 2004. In addition, according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the number of annual fatalities as a result of natural disasters has increased from 84,570 in 1995 to 249,896 in 2005.
Despite recognizing the negative impact of natural disasters, governments and individuals have been slow to plan for such catastrophic events. The mindset to discount the possibility makes people overlook the importance of preparing for reactions against a catastrophe, thereby they are fully damaged by natural disasters. Therefore, once it happens, the damage seriously gives a negative impact on life and properties.
There is Often a lot of Damage; roads and airstrips are often blocked, weather condition often make delivery of supplies impossible
The building damage assessment, conducted between March 2010 and February 2011 by the Government of Haiti and the United Nations system, showed that more than 400,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed, of which approximately 218,000 could be occupied without repairs, 105,000 were damaged but could be repaired, and 80,000 were severely damaged and remained uninhabitable.
The destruction of buildings and infrastructure generated a huge amount of debris, estimated at 10 million cubic meters, blocking streets and land in affected areas. In the absence of a national debris management strategy, debris could, thus, be cleared and disposed of in an uncontrolled manner, hindering relief, recovery and reconstruction activities. (http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/technical-guide-debris-management-haitian-experience-2010-2012)
After Haiyan, roads in badly-hit areas were blocked by debris and bodies, with some completely damaged by the winds and storm surge. Tacloban City airport was obliterated, leaving only the runway. Aerial photos of Eastern Samar and Leyte showed flattened homes and scattered debris, making any sort of transportation and relief distribution difficult.
First it was the terrible weather, with rain and strong winds hampering the relief efforts, and roads blocked with debris. Then there was also the problem of bringing staff and supplies in by plane, as the Philippine military was given priority so they could secure airports and cities such as Tacloban, but also evacuate people and wounded from the disaster areas. (http://www.msf.org/en/article/typhoon-haiyan-challenges-deliver-aid-persist)